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Colin Renfrew - Studying Obsidian to build up a picture of trading networks (24/79)

The obsidian hydration dating method was introduced to the archaeological community in by Irving Friedman and Robert Smith of the U. Geological Survey Friedman and Smith The potential of the method in archaeological chronologic studies was quickly recognized and research concerning the effect of different variables on the rate of hydration has continued to the present day by Friedman and others. When a new surface of obsidian is exposed to the atmosphere, such as during the manufacture of glass tools, water begins to slowly diffuse from the surface into the interior of the specimen. When this hydrated layer or rind reaches a thickness of about 0. Hydration rims formed on artifacts can vary in width from less than one micron for items from the early historic period to nearly 30 microns for early sites in Africa Michels et al. Formation of the hydration rim is affected not only by time but also by several other variables. many cooks spoil

The general solution of Eq. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids - E-mail addresses: liritzis rhodes. Liritzisnick. All rights reserved.

Provenancing Archaeological Obsidian from Bulgaria

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect. It can be. The latter has. Water enters obsidian glass at these temperatures as. O and as hydroxyl OH formed by reaction with the glass. It has been demonstrated that structural water. O and as hydroxyl OH [4,26,27]. The sum of both species is. Silver et al.

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Based upon infrared spectra of the developing obsidian hydration. It is also well documented that natural glasses contain structural. This is believed to occur because the.

However the latter view may be revised as. The inter-conversion rate between molecular H. The extrapolation to lower temperatures is rather minimal in glasses.

However, experimental evidence suggests that a. Finally, at archaeological temperatures infrared IR spec. The diffusion of water. This phenome.

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At any rate, as water enters the glass network the structure is. This changing. As a result, alternate. According to another mod el, H. O molecules choos e various. The rate at which this process occurs. This diffusion process forms an external layer as water leaves the. Liritzis, N. In particular, the surface saturated layer SS layer is formed in the.

This has prompted. Many types o f rocks wer e used by ear ly men for the making of thei r.

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Altho ugh the accu rate dati ng of stone ar tifacts i s of. It was sho wn from the early day s of. FTD that the ti me of the las t cooling of anarchaeological obs idian from a. However over. To the contraryduring thei r post-us e burial hist ory in soi ls any. It is o n this assu mption tha t Friedmanand Smith. The y had noted th at in thin se ction. They suggested for dating. Arrhenius Eq. Where, in Eq. Because of the ease of cutting and. In the empirical rate appr oach, ba sed solely.

C calibra ted or ot herwise kno wn. The k val ue thus. Ho wever, this pr ocedure was hi ghly. M icro-cl imatic diff erences b etween.

The second, more complex but also widely applied technique. Again, the results reported to. Although mathematical techniques are sometimes. Whatever the dating approach used, it was. During the last decade, the introduction of new analytical.

Below we draw a. In any case, a co rrect equat ion age for OH D requires a g ood. It is ac cepted tha t the rate of w ater. A variety of stra tegies ha ve been develo ped over the ye ars to. Rogers [68] conside ring that th e outcome s are the res ult of error build.

Laterhe conclu des that obs idian hydr ation dati ng, could. Presently, the exponent of Eq. Several decades of research illustrated the complexity. In spite of many years of development. In some cases ages hav e so contradicted other well. Although OHD seemed to give good relative ages in some case. One of the major problems seem to be. As these problems were. IR were being developed to measure the water content of hydrated.

Infrared spectroscopy has been used to measure the bulk. PAS used to quantify the depth of surface water diffusion [5,66]. In some cases however with well known and extensive lab. To summarize, the problems with OHD were partly due to. As early. As they pointed out, the ability to sputter the. About point i i it was sho wn that unfo rtunatel y laborato ry induced.

But in an. SIMS provides an enhanced. In fact, Am brose and Nov ak et al. Point iii is still debated but at any rate the involved age equation. Some early OHD applications and development. Since s a vast amountof OHD dates have been publ ished mai nly. We co uld menti on a few. Th us, a compar ison of ar ound The OHD has be en occasio nally rev iewed in sol e articles or as.

Fifty years of obsidian hydration dating in archaeology

Among t hose, Frie dman et al. Mexico, ce ntral Mex ico, Beliz e, Hondura s, and Ohio t he latter imported.

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Studies of Mex ican, Guatemalan, and Sardinian. The au thors. P articula r points to tak e care of included the. Th ey conclude d four direct ions. In their review OHD wa s however pr omoted as a re latively. Since then, points 1 and 3 are alread y reached. The great sensitivity of OHD results concer ning laboratory. He maintained that the. The specimen is then inverted and ground to a final thickness of microns, removing nicks from the other side of the specimen.

The result is a thin cross-section of the surfaces of the artifact. The prepared slide is measured using an Olympus BHT petrographic microscope fitted with a video micrometer unit and a digital imaging video camera. When a clearly defined hydration layer is identified, the section is centered in the field of view to minimize parallax effects.

Four rim measurements are typically recorded for each artifact or examined surface. Narrow rinds under approximately two microns are usually examined under a higher magnification. Hydration rinds smaller than one micron often cannot be resolved by optical microscopy. Hydration thicknesses are reported to the nearest 0. Standard deviation values for each measured surface indicate the variability for hydration thickness measurements recorded for each specimen.

It is important to note that these values reflect only the reading uncertainty of the rim values and do not take into account the resolution limitations of the microscope or other sources of uncertainty that enter into the formation of hydration rims Meighan; Liritzis Any attempts to convert rind measurements to absolute dates should be approached with great care and considerable skepticism, particularly when rates are borrowed from existing literature sources.

When considered through temporal periods, the variables affecting the development of hydration rims are complex Anovitz et al. Anovitz, Lawrence M. Michael Elam, Lee R. Riciputi, and David R. Journal of Archaeological Science Freter, AnnCorinne. Ancient Mesoamerica 4 2 Friedman, Irving and John Obradovich. Obsidian Hydration Dating of Volcanic Events. Quaternary Research Friedman, Irving and Robert L. American Antiquity Friedman, Irving and F. Obsidian Hydration Dating ate.

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American Antiquity 48 3 Friedman, Irving, F. Trembour, and Richard E.

Obsidian dating in archaeology

Obsidian Hydration Dating. In Chronometric Dating in Archaeology, edited by R. Taylor and M. Aitken, pp. Friedman, Irving, Fred W. It has an error factor of about 0. In order to adjust the experimental hydration rate to the conditions at the archaeological site, the soil temperature and soil relative humidity need to be well estimated.

On short term projects, ambient conditions can be estimated from weather records.

Archaeologists are fond of it because of obsidian hydrationa relatively secure (and relatively low cost) way to date the period an obsidian tool was last flaked. Sourcing obsidian-that is to say, discovering where the raw stone from a particular obsidian artifact came from-is typically conducted through trace element analysis. Jan 28, аи Obsidian Dating and East African Archeology | Science New experimental procedures have made it possible to establish specific hydration rates for the numerous compositional types of obsidian Cited by: Two dating methods have been applied to obsidian: obsidian hydration dating and fission track dating. In Europe, obsidian was exploited extensively from c BC; after BC it generally went out of favor for everyday purposes (perhaps as a result of competition from metal tools) but it continued to be used for prestige objects in some areas, especially by the Minoans and Mycenaeans.

For studies that take longer than a year, thermal cells can be buried at the archaeological site. The small capsules are placed at multiple depths that typically span a depth range of 5 cm to cm below ground surface. About 8 cells are required to establish a temperature and relative humidity curve for the site. With this background work done, the environmental conditions can be determined for any context at a site.

The Limitations of Obsidian Hydration Dating Using this technique, any sample of obsidian can be dated. There are several limitations, however. The Diffusion Laboratory. International Association for Obsidian Studies. Freter, AnnCorinne. Ancient Mesoamerica 4 2 Friedman, Irving and F. Obsidian Hydration Dating ate.

Hammond, N. Obsidian hydration dating of Tecep Phase occupation at Nohmul, Belize. American Antiquity - CrossRef Google ScholarCited by: The dating technique called obsidian hydration is a favorite of archaeologists, both because it is relatively secure and because it is relatively inexpensive. The obsidian hydration dating method was introduced to the archaeological community in by Irving Friedman and Robert Smith of the U. S. Geological Survey (Friedman and Smith ). The potential of the method in archaeological chronologic studies was quickly recognized and research concerning the effect of different variables on the rate of hydration has continued to the present day .

American Antiquity 48 3 Friedman, Irving Fred W. Trembour,Franklin L. Smith, and George I.

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Quaternary Research 41 2 Michels, Joseph W. Schiffer, pp. Tsong, and Charles M. Obsidian Dating and East African Archeology. Science Origer, Thomas M. Hughes, pp.

May 01, аи Although the accurate dating of stone artifacts is of fundamental importance in archaeology, until now this proved to be possible only in the case of obsidian, by fission track dating (FTD) or by obsidian hydration dating (OHD).Cited by: They introduced the obsidian hydration dating method to the archaeological community in It may be used in two ways: as a relative dating method to determine if one artifact is older or younger than another, or as an absolute dating method where a calendar date (AD/BC) is produced. About fifty years ago Friedman and Smith recognized the obsidian hydration phenomenon and proposed an empirical dating method based on the conversion of .
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